As per https://orc.apache.org/docs/types.html, Orc supports both TIMESTAMP_NTZ and TIMESTAMP_LTZ (Spark's current default timestamp type):
- A TIMESTAMP => TIMESTAMP_LTZ
- Timestamp with local time zone => TIMESTAMP_NTZ
In Spark 3.1 or prior, Spark only considered TIMESTAMP.
Since 3.2, with the support of timestamp without time zone type:
- Orc writer follows the definition and uses "Timestamp with local time zone" on writing TIMESTAMP_NTZ.
- Orc reader converts the "Timestamp with local time zone" to TIMESTAMP_NTZ.