The following SQL query should return zero rows, but in Spark it actually returns one row:
The problem stems from the `PushDownPredicate` rule: when this rule encounters a filter on top of an Aggregate operator, e.g. `Filter(Agg(...))`, it removes the original filter and adds a new filter onto Aggregate's child, e.g. `Agg(Filter(...))`. This is often okay, but the case above is a counterexample: because there is no explicit `GROUP BY`, we are implicitly computing a global aggregate over the entire table so the original filter was not acting like a `HAVING` clause filtering the number of groups: if we push this filter then it fails to actually reduce the cardinality of the Aggregate output, leading to the wrong answer.
A simple fix is to never push down filters beneath aggregates when there are no grouping expressions.