Even when the command-line is correct, and the checkin-policies is fulfilled, TFS returns an error
TF10139 Error when checking in files: Check in policy error when policies have been satified
According to microsoft, In order to solve this, customers should install "TF power tools", and check-in using the power-tool. In this case, the command line will be different, e.g.
tfpd -checkin ... (instead of tf -checkin...)
This solution breaks the TFS-provider, because the command is completely different. Note, that TFS does check-in the file, yet it returns an error (which can be ignored)