# SimplexSolver returns unfeasible solution

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#### Details

• Type: Bug
• Status: Closed
• Priority: Major
• Resolution: Fixed
• Affects Version/s: 2.1
• Fix Version/s:
• Labels:
None

#### Description

The SimplexSolver is returning an unfeasible solution:

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.text.DecimalFormat;
import org.apache.commons.math.linear.ArrayRealVector;
import org.apache.commons.math.optimization.GoalType;
import org.apache.commons.math.optimization.OptimizationException;
import org.apache.commons.math.optimization.linear.*;

public class SimplexSolverBug {

public static void main(String[] args) throws OptimizationException {

LinearObjectiveFunction c = new LinearObjectiveFunction(new double[]

{0.0d, 1.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, 0.0d);

ArrayList<LinearConstraint> cnsts = new ArrayList<LinearConstraint>(5);
LinearConstraint cnst;
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{1.0d, -0.1d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.EQ, -0.1d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, -1e-18d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, 0.0d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, -0.0128588d, 1e-5d}

, Relationship.EQ, 0.0d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 1e-5d, -0.0128586d}

, Relationship.EQ, 1e-10d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, -1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, 0.0d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, 0.0d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, -1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, 0.0d);
cnst = new LinearConstraint(new double[]

{0.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, 1.0d, 0.0d, 0.0d}

, Relationship.GEQ, 0.0d);

DecimalFormat df = new java.text.DecimalFormat("0.#####E0");

System.out.println("Constraints:");
for(LinearConstraint con : cnsts)

{ for (int i = 0; i < con.getCoefficients().getDimension(); ++i) System.out.print(df.format(con.getCoefficients().getData()[i]) + " "); System.out.println(con.getRelationship() + " " + con.getValue()); }

SimplexSolver simplex = new SimplexSolver(1e-7);
double[] sol = simplex.optimize(c, cnsts, GoalType.MINIMIZE, false).getPointRef();
System.out.println("Solution:\n" + new ArrayRealVector(sol));
System.out.println("Second constraint is violated!");
}
}

It's an odd problem, but something I ran across. I tracked the problem to the getPivotRow routine in SimplexSolver. It was choosing a pivot that resulted in a negative right-hand-side. I recommend a fix by replacing
...
if (MathUtils.equals(ratio, minRatio, epsilon)) {
...
with
...
if (MathUtils.equals(ratio, minRatio, Math.abs(epsilon/entry))) {
...

I believe this would be more appropriate (and at least resolves this particular problem).

Also, you may want to consider making a change in getPivotColumn to replace
...
if (MathUtils.compareTo(tableau.getEntry(0, i), minValue, epsilon) < 0) {
...
with
...
if (tableau.getEntry(0, i) < minValue)
...
because I don't see the point of biasing earlier columns when multiple entries are within epsilon of each other. Why not pick the absolute smallest. I don't know that any problem can result from doing it the other way, but the latter may be a safer bet.

VERY IMPORTANT: I discovered another bug that occurs when not restricting to non-negatives. In SimplexTableu::getSolution(),
...
if (basicRows.contains(basicRow))
// if multiple variables can take a given value
// then we choose the first and set the rest equal to 0
coefficients[i] = 0;
...
should be
...
if (basicRows.contains(basicRow)) {
// if multiple variables can take a given value
// then we choose the first and set the rest equal to 0
coefficients[i] = (restrictToNonNegative ? 0 : -mostNegative);
...
If necessary, I can give an example of where this bug causes a problem, but it should be fairly obvious why this was wrong.

#### Attachments

1. SimplexSolverIssuesOutput.txt
2 kB
Wayne Witzel
2. SimplexSolverIssues.java
9 kB
Wayne Witzel
3. MATH-434-version2.patch
18 kB
Thomas Neidhart
4. MATH-434-cleanup.patch
4 kB
Thomas Neidhart
5. MATH-434.patch
9 kB
Thomas Neidhart

#### People

• Assignee:
Unassigned
Reporter:
Wayne Witzel