The topic "Shutting down Derby or an individual database" (http://db.apache.org/derby/docs/dev/devguide/tdevdvlp40464.html) begins,
"Applications in an embedded environment shut down the Derby system by specifying the shutdown=true attribute in the connection URL. To shut down the system, you do not specify a database name, and you must not specify any other attribute."
This statement actually needs some qualification, because (according to Francois Orsini) "if you have defined Derby's BUILT-IN user authentication at the System level (e.g. setting username / password in derby.properties file)" you do need to specify a username and password when you shut down the database.
The topic needs to include this information. Further suggestions on the wording are welcome.