It doesn't look like anyone is working on this issue. You can vote for it and you can advocate for it on derby-dev or derby-user. Note that there are 3 weeks left before we cut the 10.4.2 release.
The following query may give you some of what you need. I have no idea how this query performs on your schema:
select s.schemaname, t.tablename, c.columnname, c.columnnumber, c.columndatatype
from sys.sysschemas s, sys.systables t, sys.syscolumns c
where c.referenceid = t.tableid
and t.schemaid = s.schemaid
and t.tabletype = 'T'
order by s.schemaname, t.tablename, c.columnname, c.columnnumber
A couple points about this query:
o You can adjust this query by consulting the layout of the system tables. That layout is described in the Derby Reference Guide.
o The columndatatype column is an object of type org.apache.derby.catalog.TypeDescriptor. That class is not in Derby's public API and therefore is not guaranteed to be stable across releases (although my sense is that it has tended to evolve in upward-compatible ways).