Adaptive range filters are, in principle, bloom filters for range queries. They provide a space-efficient way to avoid scanning a partition when we can tell that we do not contain any data for the range requested. Like BF, they can return false positives but not false negatives.
The implementation is of course totally different from BF. ARF is a tree where each leaf of the tree is a range of data and a bit, either on or off, denoting whether we have some data in that range.
ARF are described here: http://www.vldb.org/pvldb/vol6/p1714-kossmann.pdf