Stomp Camel Component modifies the destination name passed via endpoint URI by prepending a slash to it and by replacing ':' with '/' . This turns out to be problematic when targeting an ActiveMQ Artemis instance embedded in WildFly. For whatever reason, it expects queue names to start with "jms.queue." without the initial slash.
There is a WildFly Camel integration test demonstrating the issue: 
StompComponent should not assume anything about the naming scheme, because it has no control over the decisions made on the broker side.