If a consumer with prefetch>0 does an immediate close, without consuming any messages. Spring DMLC with small timeout or receiveNoWait for example. The broker will have dispatched and will want to redispatch to another consumer and will have incremented the redelivery count in error.
After 6 (default redelivery attempts) a consumer will poison ack and the message will go to the DLQ.
A simple consumer create/close then create/receive with pending messages will demo this.
true for queue consumers and durable topic subs