We had to set up Maven on a system which is completely offline, restricted to work on a few, select projects.
During testing, everything initially looked good, we could perform "mvn clean install" in all projects without issue, and could perform other Maven-task as well, Intellij was happy, it could resolve all projects fully, run all test cases etcetera, and did not complain about any missing artifacts.
However, we noticed we couldn't do "package" or "verify" (which was odd, since install works, which is a later phase!), because then surefire (3.0.0-M5) would complain it was missing org.apache.maven:maven-toolchain:jar:3.0-alpha-2 (or some of its dependencies, which are quite a few, and all very old, obviously).
It would be nice if Surefire would not need to resolve this old artifact (it's from 2009), regardless of phase used
surefire-3.0.0-M3 also suffers from this issue...2.18.1 does not. Did not try other versions.
(description adapted from email sent to maven-dev)