Under Windows, XSECPlatformUtils::Initialise() starts by creating a new WinCAPICryptoProvider. This fails at WinCAPICryptoProvider.cpp:127 when trying to create its key store:
// Try to create
dwFlags | CRYPT_NEWKEYSET))
The Windows error is NTE_TEMPORARY_PROFILE.
http://blogs.msdn.com/b/alejacma/archive/2007/10/23/rsacryptoserviceprovider-fails-when-used-with-mandatory-profiles.aspx explains that the RSA crypto provider does not allow keys to be stored when a mandatory profile is in use.
Would it be practical to change behaviour in this case so that library initialisation does not fail, and the exception is thrown only if there is an attempt to use the key store?