BasicMessageConsumer.notifyMessage catches Exception and handles it, but unchecked throwables will cause the Dispatcher thread in the Session to terminate after logging. It does not kill the session.
The JMS spec has this to say:
4.5.2 Asynchronous Delivery
A client can register an object that implements the JMS MessageListener
interface with a MessageConsumer. As messages arrive for the consumer, the
provider delivers them by calling the listener's onMessage method.
It is possible for a listener to throw a RuntimeException; however, this is
considered a client programming error. Well-behaved listeners should catch
such exceptions and attempt to divert messages causing them to some form of
application-specific 'unprocessable message' destination.
The result of a listener throwing a RuntimeException depends on the session's
• AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE - the message
will be immediately redelivered. The number of times a JMS provider will
redeliver the same message before giving up is provider-dependent. The
JMSRedelivered message header field will be set for a message redelivered
under these circumstances.
• CLIENT_ACKNOWLEDGE - the next message for the listener is delivered.
If a client wishes to have the previous unacknowledged message
redelivered, it must manually recover the session.
• Transacted Session - the next message for the listener is delivered. The client
can either commit or roll back the session (in other words, a
RuntimeException does not automatically rollback the session).
JMS providers should flag clients with message listeners that are throwing
RuntimeExceptions as possibly malfunctioning.