At least under Windows 10 and Maven 3.5.4, the handy Check Out... feature at [Maven project] > Dependencies > [artifact] > View Artifact Details > Project > Source Control Management > Check Out... is broken.
After filling the dialog and clicking Check Out, the Maven error "The goal you specified requires a project to execute but there is no POM in this directory ..." is occurring every time.
It is caused by a space after -Dpassword in the Maven command line:
Instead, it should be "... -Dpassword=<password> ...".
I have already sent a mail including additional details with the subject "Bug and solution with Maven Dependency Check Out" to email@example.com and will provide an according PR for the fix on GitHub next.