With a Google LG Nexus 5X and I can't manage to make getCurrentPosition() work.
I have Wi-Fi on, Location on high accuracy, Mobile data on, even Bluetooth on, but nothing.
You can replicate by running this code in the Chrome Dev console (via Remote devices):
I also managed to reproduce with a cordova plugin and ionic native showcase app:
(though no error appears)
Code the 1st app is here: https://github.com/michaelrbk/showCaseCordova/blob/master/www/js/geolocation.js
Trying a phone with Android 6 is fine.
Could this be related to this?