After Cassandra has successfully starts up with disk_failure_policy die, when encounter a file system error, Cassandra server will only throw exception instead of shut down gossip and client transport and kill JVM. Document: https://cassandra.apache.org/doc/latest/cassandra/configuration/cass_yaml_file.html#disk_failure_policy
The reason for this is the default FS error handler is not handing policy die correctly. Instead of shutting down gossip and native transport, it throws an error.
The JVMStabilityInspectorTest is passing because the error handler is not set so no exception is thrown.