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The precision shouldn't be higher than 38, but 39 is happily accepted currently:
>>> ty = pa.decimal128(39, 0)
>>> arr = pa.array([2**127], type=ty)
<pyarrow.lib.Decimal128Array object at 0x7f9b89444138>
[Gandiva] validate that the precision/scale are within bounds
[C++/Python] Validate scale and precision of decimal128 type
GitHub Pull Request #3647