One might think you could do new byte[Integer.MAX_VALUE] in Java, but as I found when looking into
ACCUMULO-4708 suprise you can't.
According to the stack overflow post new byte[Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8] should be safe. I was able to do up to new byte[Integer.MAX_VALUE - 2] in my local testing.
When Accumulo caches a block it reads it into a byte array. For example this code in CachableBlockFile.java does this when _currBlock.getRawSize() <= cache.getMaxSize().
This code should ensure the size is less than min( cache.getMaxSize(), MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) inorder to read it into a byte array.